In this blog post I wanted to take a moment to share our challenges with continuous integration and delivery and how we approached them. Our Philter software to find and remove PII and PHI from text is deployed on (at the moment) three cloud marketplaces as well as being available for on-premises deployment. Each of the marketplaces, AWS Marketplace, Microsoft Azure Marketplace, and Google Compute Platform (GCP) Marketplace, all have their own requirements and constraints. We needed a pipeline that can build and test our code and deliver the binaries to each of the cloud marketplaces as a deployable image.
What tools you use to implement your process does not really matter. Some tools are more feature-rich than others and some are only better or worse in terms of difference of opinion. It’s up to you to pick the tools that you or your organization want to use. We will mention the tools we use but don’t take that as meaning only these tools will work. (We like being tool-agnostic to not make us afraid to try new tools.) Our build infrastructure runs in AWS.
Our builds are managed by Jenkins through Jenkinsfiles. Each project has a Jenkinsfile that defines the build stages for the project. These stages vary by project but are usually similar to “build”, “test”, and “deploy.” The build and test stages are pretty self-explanatory. The deploy stage is where things get interesting (i.e. challengine).
We are using Hashicorp’s Packer tool to create our images for the cloud marketplaces. A single packer JSON file contains a “builder” (in Packer terminology) for each cloud marketplace. A builder defines the necessary parameters for constructing the image on that specific cloud platform. For instance, when building on AWS EC2, the builder contains information about the VPC and subnet making the build, base AMI the image will be created from, and the AWS region for the image. Likewise, for Microsoft Azure, the builder defines things such as the storage account name, operating system name and version, and the Azure subscription ID. GCP has its own set of required parameters.
The rest of the Packer JSON file contains the steps that will be done to prepare the image. This includes steps such as executing commands over SSH to install prerequisite packages, upload build artifacts made by the Jenkins build, and lastly, prepare the system for being turned into an image.
After the Jenkinsfile’s “deploy” stage executes, the end result will be a new image in each of the cloud platforms suitable for final testing prior to being made available on the cloud’s marketplace. This testing is initiated by the build by publishing a message to an AWS SNS topic each an images completes creation. This triggers a process to create and start a virtual machine from the image powered by AWS Lambda. Required credentials are stored in AWS SSM Parameter Store.
Automated testing is then performed against the virtual machine. Individual testing of each image is required is due to the nuances and different requirements of each cloud platform and marketplace and different base images. For instance, on AWS the base image is Amazon Linux 2. On Microsoft Azure it is CentOS 7. The scripts that install the prerequisites and configure the application can differ based on the base image.
The automated testing involves testing the application’s API and by establishing an SSH connection to the virtual machine to verify files are in the correct location or have been configured properly. A message is published to a separate AWS SNS topic indicating success or failure of the tests and the virtual machine image is deleted/terminated leaving only the newly built image. The test results are persisted to a database along with the build number for reference. If testing was successful, we can proceed to the manual steps of publishing the image to the marketplaces when we are ready to do so. (All marketplaces require manual clicking to submit images so none of it can be automated.)
Continuous integration and delivery is important for all software projects. Having a consistent, repeatable process for building, testing, and packaging software for delivery is critical. A well-defined and implemented process can help teams find problems earlier, get configurations into code, and ultimately, get higher-quality products to the market faster.
Jeff Zemerick is the founder of Mountain Fog. You can contact him at email@example.com or on Twitter at @jzonthemtn.